Plastic pipework is used for the conveyance of drinking water, waste water, chemicals, heating fluid and cooling fluids, foodstuffs, ultra-pure liquids, slurries, gases, compressed air and vacuum system applications. Plastic pipe systems fulfil a wide variety of service requirements.Product standards for plastics pipe systems are prepared within the standards committee known as CEN/TC155.
These requirements are precisely described in a complete set of European Product Standards for each application alongside their specific characteristics. For example: Conveyance of drinking water: Hygienic requirements Conveyance of gas: Highest Safety requirements Plastic pipes for radiant heating and floor heating: Temperature resistance over decades Sewer applications: High chemical resistance. Plastic pipes are perfectly capable of fulfilling the specific requirement for each application.They do so with a high level of performance over a long lifetime and with reliability and safety. The key factor for success is achieved by maintaining consistently high quality levels.
As recently as the late 19th century sewerage systems in some parts of the rapidly industrializing United Kingdom were so inadequate that water-borne diseases such as cholera and typhoid remained a risk. From as early as 1535 there were efforts to stop polluting the River Thames in London.
Leading up to the Industrial Revolution the River Thames was identified as being thick and black due to sewage, and it was even said that the river ?smells like death.?24 As Britain was the first country to industrialize, it was also the first to experience the disastrous consequences of major urbanisation and was the first to construct a modern sewerage system to mitigate the resultant unsanitary conditions.citation needed During the early 19th century, the River Thames was effectively an open sewer, leading to frequent outbreaks of cholera epidemics.Proposals to modernise the sewerage system had been made during 1856, but were neglected due to lack of funds. However, after the Great Stink of 1858, Parliament realised the urgency of the problem and resolved to create a modern sewerage system.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_water_supply_and_sanitation
Valves are found in virtually every industrial process, including water and sewage processing, mining, power generation, processing of oil, gas and petroleum, food manufacturing, chemical and plastic manufacturing and many other fields. People in developed nations use valves in their daily lives, including plumbing valves, such as taps for tap water, gas control valves on cookers, small valves fitted to washing machines and dishwashers, safety devices fitted to hot water systems, and poppet valves in car engines. In nature there are valves, for example one-way valves in veins controlling the blood circulation, and heart valves controlling the flow of blood in the chambers of the heart and maintaining the correct pumping action. Valves may be operated manually, either by a handle, lever, pedal or wheel.